The Non-linear Diagnosis Systems(NLS) have been extensively used lately and are
gaining ever-growing popularity. Even in the few cases, where the clinical symptoms
look very typical, NLS diagnosis provides extra information about the extent of
dysfunction and enables a better opportunity for a more comprehensive prognosis. In
most cases, it is of vital importance for diagnosis and consequently for the right choice of
In 2000 Theodore Van Hoven theory of quantum entropy logic (that under lies this
method) had been in existence for 20 years. The non-linear diagnosis appears to be the most
up-to-date of all methods of the hardware-based diagnosis. His discovery can be viewed as a
significant landmark in diagnostic medicine.
The non-linear analysis was originally employed in organic chemistry to determine the
composition of complex compounds.
The NLS-method is advancing not only in technological innovation but also in new
applications. Some minor surgical operations(e.g. biopsy) have long been monitored
using ultrasound, fluoroscopy, or computer tomography. Today we have an opportunity to
have biopsy monitored by NLS. Many surgeons now focus on using this method to assist
The cost of equipment for NLS-diagnosis is still very low as compared to some other
hardware-based methods. This should help promote more extensive use of the method in
countries with low living standards. Of all methods of hardware-based diagnosis the
NLS provides representations most proximate to the pathologic-anatomic picture. The
feature of the method along with its harmlessness promotes rapid development of the
Computer-based non-linear analysis(NLS) as a dynamic non-invasive informative
method is increasingly used to examine the status of health affected by pathologies of
different origins. NLS can be applied both in vivo (to acquire an NLS-spectrum of one or
another part of an organ or tissue), and in vitro (to obtain an NLS-spectrum of extracts
from tissues, biological fluids or cells). Often both approaches can be combined for a
more accurate data interpretation. The usage of NLS at a clinic requires devices
producing at least a 20-30mT eddy magnetic field. The proceedings of the latest
International Congress of Medical Doctors(2000 and 2001), that dealt with new methods of
diagnosis, provide evidence of a growing number of NLS-investigations used for the
diagnostic purposes- the 2000 summit heard 16 presentations on the subject, while in
2001 there were twice as many.
Using the NLS-method the dynamics of metabolic change in the encephalon when
treating epilepsy can be traced. Some data are available, that indicates a possibility to
register a decline in oxidative phosphorylation in the lower limb muscles with
the construction of the vessels caused by atherosclerosis. In the course of treatment, the
muscle metabolism appears to improve.
Another trend in the application of the NLS method is the detection of metabolic disturbance of
phosphoric compounds at muscular atrophy related to pathology in the
Some promising prospects for myocardial infarction diagnosis by means of the NLS
the method was described by U.A. Shovkopylas et al., who studied the ATP exchange in the
myocardium. At a myocardial infarction, its level was proven to decrease. The NLS analysis
the method was employed to study the dynamics of change in the metabolism of lipids in the
liver affected by cirrhosis.
The NLS-investigation of the pancreas affected by malignant degeneration enables to
diagnose tumor progression, judge the efficiency of radiation- or chemotherapy and
also adjust individual dosage schemes for inoperable patients.
Moreover, NLS use has been reported in the diagnosis of CNS disorders, cardiovascular
diseases, muscular system disorders, prostate tumors, mammary gland tumors, and in
addition to monitor radiation and medicinal therapies. Researchers have demonstrated
the diagnostic importance of NLS for arteriosclerosis, apoplexy, encephalomyelitis and
vasculitis. NLS permits an estimate of the phase of pathology and activity of the nidus
(focus), determining a relationship between genetic characteristics, clinical symptoms, and
metabolic deviation in the encephalon. NLS helps to differentiate between benign and
malignant tumors in the mammary gland. The studies of abnormal changes in the
prostate gland by means of NLS showed that the method allowed the identification of an
incipient change in the gland tissue, thus enabling appropriate therapy selection.
K.A. Kvasov et. al. presented some data about diagnosing prostate diseases (including
histologically confirmed benign hypertrophy and Aden carcinoma) by combining NLS and
dynamic MRT with artificial “Magnevist” contrasting. According to the derived results, this
kind of combination enables the definition of the pattern of a prostate pathology and
substantially increases the diagnostic accuracy.
The non-linear diagnostic method (NLS) has been actively practiced lately at many
medical institutions. The most tangible results were achieved by using the NLS method
as a means of dispensary observation. In the course of its development and advancement,
the method has become a foremost tool for diagnosis and monitoring for a number of
widespread digestive organ diseases: it facilitates rapid and detailed information about a
lesion and its pattern and helps in assessing treatment efficacy. This has been found true
in our studies for a range of diseases including gastro-duodenal ulcer, chronic gastritis,
benign and malignant gastric, and colonic tumors. The specific character and working
conditions of the therapeutic and clinical institutions in Russia enables the extensive use
of NLS methodology, not only for diagnosis with some symptoms present but also for
medication monitoring. Importantly the speed and low cost enable many patients to avail
themselves of the NLS information. Physicians can now assess patients with latent
changes that can only be verified by means of NLS. Specifically, such patients include
those having precancerous diseases or a mucous disturbance in the upper and/or lower
sections of the digestive tract and patients who developed a tumor, which still remains
latent in a certain phase.
NLS diagnosis is a highly efficient method of diagnosing the neoplasms of the colon,
allowing to diagnose neoplasms and regional lymph glands.
The NLS method enables to detect the colon adenoma and cancer by the presence or
absence of the tumor invasions in the intestinal wall.
The diagnostic efficiency of the NLS method in defining the phase of the tumor process in the
the rectum is lower than in the segmented intestine.
The diagnostic accuracy of the cancer phase in the colon depends as much on the size as
on the anatomic shape of the tumor growth. The best results were obtained at
defining the depth of invasion of the intestinal walls by a tumor sized under 2 cm and
over 5 cm.
Today the world faces a constant trend of a growing rate of mortality caused by occlusive
vascular diseases, especially by cerebrovascular disorders which are in third place
among death causes. On the one hand, the trend is caused by a growing number of elderly
and aged patients. On the other hand, many men even already at 45 have atherosclerotic
damage of main head arteries, causing the need for medical observation.
The most simple and at the same time informative method of non-invasive diagnosis of
occlusive damage of peripheral vessels appeared to be the NLS-method which has been
used in clinical practice for a short time. The first NLS devices equipped with analog
trigger sensors, operating in 1.4 GHz frequency mode and used in clinical practice since
the late 90-s have not lost their importance yet. They can help determine the condition of
certain sections of the main vessels in the lower limbs and that of the brachial-cephalic
The NLS-digital spectral analysis method has no contra-indications and in terms of
informational content is comparable to angiography. It can be used to perform screening
in the course of poly-clinical examination with a view to detecting early or latent forms of
vascular pathology and also as a preliminary method for selecting patients for angiosurgical treatment, since according to some specialists, angiography should only be
performed on candidates for surgery picked out after a preliminary NLS investigation.
However, this method does not assess the bulk index of the bloodstream, because NLS
does not provide a vessel image and thus is unable to measure the vessel’s diameter.
This kind of information may be acquired with the help of Doppler systems with 3Dimaging, that offer duplex and triplex scanning (the so-called Doppler chromatic
The NLS-method was developed in the mid-90-s and played an essential role in vascular
pathology diagnosis. The main advantage of the NLS-method was that it facilitated
search and location of the vessels and facilitated rapid differentiation of vessels from
nonvascular structures, arteries from veins, and very accurate detection of signs of
disturbed vascular permeability caused by stenosis or occlusion of the vessel lumen by an
atherosclerotic patch or a thrombus: both of which are generally not visible at scanning in
In addition, the NLS-method enables the diagnose of portal hypertension, the extent of its
intensity, and the permeability of Porto systemic bypasses. NLS is very sensitive in defining the
extent of peri-pancreatic vessel involvement with pancreatic cancer: essential in
selecting the approach for surgical treatment. NLS facilitates detection of the damaged
renal vessels (both veins and arteries).
The NLS-method is indispensable for differential diagnosis of benign and malignant
hepatic diseases. Its sensitivity is comparable with the potentials of conventional or
digital angiography and computer-assisted amplified tomography. In addition, the
NLS method is much cheaper, simpler and more intelligible. It can be employed directly at the
patient’s bedside if required. The NLS-method may be used in ophthalmology to check ocular
hemodynamics before or after surgical intervention, in obstetrics to detect the disturbed
blood current in umbilical cord arteries with a view to diagnose a retarted
fetus development and predict negative perinatal produce.
The computer nonlinear diagnostics (NLS) is one of the promising methods of
diagnosing lung diseases of today. NLS appreciably improves the communication of the
fine morphological elements in the lung tissue and opens up new opportunities for
recognizing interstitial diseases of the broncho-alveolar system. NLS has a high
sensitivity in detecting the interstitial lesions of the parenchyma and small nodules.
The results of the investigations prove that NLS has better sensitivity in detecting both
acute and chronic diffuse lung diseases. The sensitivity of the NLS diagnosis in detecting
lung diseases makes 85% as compared to 70% in chest radiography. The accumulated experience too gives additional grounds to assert that NLS is a highly
efficient method for diagnosing a wide range of various diffuse lung diseases (DILD
included) and excels the ‘classic’ chest radiography in sensitivity.
An ever-growing number of physicians enjoy an opportunity of a screening with the NLS of the
prostate gland and urinary bladder. This article attempts to consider some particulars of
morphological changes occurring in a prostate affected by pathology, based on the results
In the West, prostate cancer makes 20% of the total cancer diseases and ranks second to
lung tumors as a death cause.
According to some autopsy findings with a histological investigation of the prostate, 12-
47% of men aged over 50 appeared to have cancerous nidi. Clinically, cancer is
diagnosed more rarely because a high percentage of that number corresponds to ‘minor
forms’ of cancer that have low invasiveness, so the patients suffering from it die of
another kind of pathology.
To enhance the quality of prostate diseases diagnosis it is important to comprehend the
specifics of the topographic and zonal anatomy of a particular organ.
The prostate gland is located in the small pelvis between the bladder and anterior
abdominal wall, anterior rectum wall, and secondary urogenital diaphragm. The gland has
a chestnut shape and tightly envelops the bladder cervix and prostate urethra. The gland
base is lightly connected with the bladder into a coherent mass. Its anterior surface is
directed to the symphysis and the posterior one – to the rectum ampulla. The posterior
surface of the gland has an expressed sulcus, which enables to conventionally subdivide
the gland into the left and right lobes. Besides, there is a protruding middle cone-shaped
lobe confirmed anteriorly by the prostatic urethra and by the spermatic ducts posteriorly.
According to NLS-investigation, the external part looks like a structure of normal
chromogenic density (2-3 points of Flandler’s scale), and the internal one is
hypo chromogenic (1-2 points). The two parts are divided by a fibro muscular layer, the so
called surgical capsule, along which an incision is made during surgical intervention, and
calcium salts deposit (calcium incrustation of the gland). In the NLS-investigation those
formations can well be seen as fairly hypo chromogenic structures (3-4 points) of
The analysis of the prostatic gland image on the NLS virtual model is made according to the
following quantity and quality characteristics:
Size: from to back – 2-2.5 cm, across – 3-4.5 cm, from top to bottom – 2.5-4 cm;
Volume: up to 20 cm;
Symmetry. The urethra is the reference point.
If any pathological changes are detected in the NLS-graph it is recommended to: – specify their exact location; – perform histography of the pathological area and area of the tissue with a normal
It will be helpful for the case follow-ups. At benign hyperplasia, NLS enables detection of the
direction of the principal germination. In the case of hypertrophic transitory zones the gland
proliferates inwards. Though darkened lateral zones are formed (4-5 points on Flandler’s
scale), the nodes can still be always visualized. Trans-rectal NLS offers the most detailed
and authentic information.
Enlarged lateral lobes squeeze PZ and CZ causing their atrophy. With the proliferation of the
para-urethral ones a massive fibro muscular PPS layer restricts their hyperplasia, so with
this kind of pathology, the gland proliferates along the urethra forming a middle darkened
zone pushing back the bladder wall. Virtual scanning makes this pathology clearly
visible in longitudinal sections. At the beginning of the proliferation, a relationship
between the internal and external glandular parts is disturbed. Apart from some
distinctions in the zones of principal proliferation, the clinical signs will be different as
well. In the case where a globe-shaped gland is formed (TZ proliferation), the gland is
chiefly hyper-chromogenic and the dystric manifestations are minimal while with a
‘middle zone’ formed the gland is slightly darkened and dysuria appears to be frank.
Sphincter decompensation leads to the development of urinary incontinence and dilation
of the upper urinary tract followed by the atrophy of the cortical layer of kidneys, which
gradually add to frequent urination, nycturia, reduced pressure of the urine, or reduced
rate urination occurring in the initial phase of the disease.
Mammary gland cancer is one of the most common women’s oncologic diseases. Its
annual growth rate in the developed countries is about 3%. In addition, this pathology
proves to be the primary cause of mortality among females affected by oncologic
diseases. The tactics of treatment and disease prognosis largely depend on the presence
or absence of any regional metastases. In this connection, the problem of competent
diagnosis of affected regional lymph nodes becomes especially pertinent. With that end
in view, a number of methods have been used, from physical to hardware-based
examinations. However, in 40% of the patients, metastatic lesion of the lymph nodes in
the axillary area is not determined clinically and false-positive data were observed in 25%
of cases. Instrumental diagnosis methods do not have rich informational content either.
The NLS investigation of regional lymph nodes has been more extensively used lately.
Subject and methods of investigation
We have examined regional lymph nodes by means of a device NLS with a 4.9 GHz
nonlinear trigger sensor in 25 patients affected by mammary gland cancer in phase I-III. The
obtained data were compared with the results of the histological investigation of the
macro-preparations removed during surgery.
Of 25 patients examined prior to surgery as many as 1-3 affected lymph nodes were
detected in 20 patients. The derived results were practically fully confirmed by
histological investigation of the macro-preparations removed during surgery. Only in one
case NLS analysis did not detect affected nodes which we account for their small size.
During the NLS investigation, the metastatic lymph nodes were found to have
pathological changes with quite a high degree of intensity. Flandler’s scale indicated 5-6
points in 80% of cases.
The fact that organo-saving surgery and in some cases tumorectomy are being more and
more extensively used these days makes the NLS investigation even more important.
Our own practical experience can confirm that. Patient B., 63 years old was admitted to
the clinic with regard to right mammary gland cancer in its early phase IIa after an
ischemic stroke in combination with ischemic heart disease and hypertension III.
Palpation did not detect any lymph node enlargement. The NLS investigation did not
detect metastasis-affect lymph nodes which allowed a tumorectomy for this patient at a
low hazard to life.
Thus NLS investigation of regional lymph nodes with mammary gland cancer may
become a sufficiently reliable method for assessing their metastatic affection which
enables to pick out the most efficient tactics in treating patients with this kind of
Primary osteoarthritis deformans of the knee joint is one of the most pertinent problems
in modern medicine due to its prevalence, great loss of working time and treatment
expenses. In addition, in many cases an early or differential diagnosis of the knee-joint
the lesion is impeded, which complicates selecting the most efficient therapeutic and
rehabilitation measures and evaluating the patient’s disability.
Today diagnosis of knee-joint disorders comprises conventional radiography as well as
sonographic evaluation of the joints, used to examine soft tissues of the locomotor. The
existing techniques used to examine the knee-joint allow determination of dominance of
the pathological processes in the joint, including degenerative ones. However, the
relationship between the intensity of pathomorphological changes and the severity and
dynamics of the process have not yet been studied.
This article aims to demonstrate the efficiency of the NLS-investigation in diagnosing
osteoarthritis deformans, especially in the early (sub-clinical) phase of the disease.
To define a normal relationship of the knee-joint anatomical structures 10 healthy persons
aged from 25 to 55 (test group) were examined. The main group consisted of 50 patients
with clinical implications of osteoarthritis deformans of knee joints in different phases. The
average duration of the disease was 7.0 + years. All patients were routinely
radiologically examined in two interpendicular planes.
The X-ray pattern analysis took into account the joint space amount of narrowing,
existence of marginal osteophytes and deformation of osseous structures with cysts and
fibrosis areas present in the sub-cartilaginous bone department.
The NLS investigation was carried out using a device equipped with a 1.5 GHztriggersensor.
Changes in the joint capsule were evaluated in virtual shots in sagittal planes above and
below the kneecap and along the posterior surface of the joint. Frontal planes along the
lateral surfaces of the joint were used to define the exact condition of menisci, articular
cartilages and changes in the synovium.
It is traditionally believed that in the articular cartilage degenerative changes start with a
rupture of the articular matrix and degeneration of chondrocytes. Therefore during the
NLS examination special attention was paid to changes in the articular cartilage. In the
examinees of the test group the articular cartilage looked like a hyperchromic strip (1-2
points according to the Flandler’s scale). Two patients were found to have articular
cartilage of a heterogeneous chromogenic pattern, 3-5 points in the initial phase of the
disease with small hyper-chromogenic nidi (1-2 points) present. No radiological changes in
the joints were detected for this group of patients.
In 14 (28.0%) patients in the second clinical phase of the disease the chrome structure of
the cartilage was heterogeneous and some high hyper-chromogenic structures (4-5 points)
were detected as well as hyper-chromogenic inclusions(1-3 points) of a small diameter.
In 21 (42%) examinees in the third phase of the disease, the hyaline cartilage appeared as a
hyper-chromogenic strip (5-6 points).
In 10 (20.0%) patients in the same clinical phase of the disease, the articular cartilage was
visualized as a distinctly hyper-chromogenic linear structure (6 points) with vertical
fissures present (4-5 points). In three patients the higher line cartilage was not visualized
mostly in the middle departments of the joint.
Depending on the phase and duration of the disease a spectral similarity (D 0.189 to
0.621) occurred to the reference standard process‘osteoarthritis deformans’.
The extensive use of NLS-investigation of knee-joints in everyday clinical practice
enables the diagnosis of osteoarthrosis deformans in its early phases.
Gastric cancer in Russia as well as in some other countries all over the world remains one of
the most acute medical problems. Most researchers engaged in the diagnosis and
treatment of gastric cancer have concluded that a timely and early diagnosis can promote
cancer treatments and improve prognostication for the patients.
For many decades radiology and endoscopy remained the principal methods for
diagnosing gastric cancer. The main shortcoming of these methods of investigation is
their inability to obtain a picture of the thick layers of the stomach wall and hence a more
exact data about the extent of tumor invasion into the stomach wall, i.e., the phase of the
tumor process in the pre-surgical period. The first attempts to establish phase gradation
in stomach tumor were made when such investigation methods as computer tomography
(CT), trans-abdominal ultrasound scanning (US) and the most recent NLS investigation
were put into clinical practice. In today’s medicine, the NLS investigation may become
an essential method for diagnosing abdominal cavity disease because of its extreme
simplicity, accessibility, and non-invasiveness. However, in view of the fact that this
investigation method has been used in medical practice since the late 90, the amount of
the published literature dealing with the potentials of the NLS in diagnosing parenchymal
organs is still insufficient.
Rather explicit methods of NLS stomach investigation have been already developed and
some NLS signs of cancer, benign and malignant gastric ulcers have been described (V.I.
Nesterova et.al., 2002). An attempt was made to establish phase gradation of gastric
cancer by means of NLS investigation which resulted in fairly high accuracy (75.8%) of the
diagnosis mostly due to diagnosing much earlier phases of the tumor process.
According to some authors, NLS offers some incontestable opportunities in defining
phases of gastric tumor mostly located in distal regions of the stomach.
Yet, according to most researchers, until recently the NLS had been largely used as a
method for specifying the extent of cancer proliferation, for defining metastases and
malignant invasions beyond the stomach, in other words, the NLS investigation method
enables the diagnosis of stomach tumors even in the early phases of the disease.
Most literature dealing with the use of radiological computer tomography to diagnose
stomach tumors provides proof that this method can potentially be used to diagnose
gastric cancer, especially its endophytic forms. However, most authors still believe that
the principal role of this method lies in the acquisition of certain very important information
about the extent of stomach lesions and the spread of the process to some adjacent organs.
According to different researchers, early gastric cancer, which only affects the mucosa and
submucous layer can not be detected on computer tomograms. In the authors’ opinion,
this is beyond ‘the resolution capabilities’ of this investigation method.
This work attempted to evaluate the potentials of the noninvasive radiation methods of
investigation (trans-abdominal ultrasound scanning and radiological computer
tomography) in detecting intramural invasion of gastric cancer, and to draw their
Adrenal tumors do not occur very often: still, they are known to be the most
hormone active, and even if small-sized cause various glandular disorders. However in
practice, adrenal tumors often clinically develop with no symptoms in evidence or are
accompanied by vague complaints.
Both documentary evidence and our experience show that 6 months to two years may
elapse from primary disease manifestations to forming a diagnosis. Early detection of
adrenal tumors have become an important clinical problem, which is now conventionally
solved by means of ultrasound investigations (US) along with computer tomography (CT),
magnetic resonance tomography (MRT) and angiography (AG).
Today NLS-scopy is one of the most advanced informative hardware-based methods of
diagnosis. The NLS method will allow a substantial increase in the early and accurate
diagnosis of adrenal tumors. The implementation of the latest devices equipped with
digital trigger sensors made it possible to detect any growth sized around 1 cm in
adrenals, which is comparable to computer tomography in terms of diagnostic accuracy.
This our research aimed to study the NLS-scopy potentials in adrenal tumor diagnosis
and to provide evidence that with a proper procedural approach and advanced
equipment in place, bulky growths could be diagnosed as successfully as if by using
computer-aided and magnetic resonance tomography.
Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease whose causative agent is toxoplasma (Toxoplasma gondii Nicolle et Manceaux), which belongs to protoza. The disease typically has a chronic course, nervous system lesion, lymph-adenopathy and enlarged liver and spleen. Quite often myocardium, muscles and eyes are affected. The infection is mostly transmitted through the alimentary tract. Yet there are some instances recorded where contagion occurred through the injured skin and mucous membranes. Toxoplasma is apt to form cysts in tissues causing a latent infection condition. The parasite becomes active in the conditions adverse to the macro-organism and with its immune responsiveness going down. In the pathogenesis of the toxoplasmosis lesion of the central nervous system of importance are local inflammatory occurrences, dis-circulatory disturbances related to vasculitis and blocked liquor tracts leading to hydro- or micro-cephaly. Clinically, the lesion of the central nervous system manifests itself as meningitis, encephalitis, meningoencephalitis and encephalomyelitis. The most typical form of toxoplasmosis of the central nervous system is meningoencephalitis, which clinical picture contains general cerebral and meningeal symptoms, paresis and limb paralyses, tonic and clonic spasms, optokinetic-(diplopia) and coordination disturbances. The blood test reveals a left-shifted leukocytosis and increased ESR: the cerebrospinal fluid contains lymphocytic pleocytosis and a moderately increased protein content. In diagnosing toxoplasmosis of importance are cranial radiography, serological investigation, pneumoencephalography, CT and MRT. However, it is the NLS investigation of cerebral structures that plays the most important part in the diagnosis. Of great diagnostic importance is a substantially increased spectral similarity to the reference standard ‘toxoplasma gondii’ (D< 0.425). The toxoplasmosis should be discriminated from viral encephalitis, encephalomyelitis and meningitis. In the MRT-investigation toxoplasmosis is manifested by a progressive multi-focal encephalopathy. With toxoplasmosis, the typical cases have to do with granulomatous fields which are small: 2.0 cm or lessin diameter. On NLS image these formations look like hyperchromatic areas (6 points on Flandler’s scale) with the central necrosis zone in ring-shaped structures being visible as an area of lower chromogenic density (4-5 points). Hemorrhage areas of small size are quite typical. The above-mentioned changes are 48 localized peri-and para-ventriculary, often in the region of bordering cortico-medullary structures as well as in the regions of basal ganglia. Clinical observation Patient K., born in 1974. The preliminary diagnosis when admitted into the neurological department as acute cerebral circulation disturbance in the spinal artery basin. The patient complained of weakness in left limbs, speech impediment, asthma and loose cough. According to her wording, she fell ill (Feb. 06.01) when she stopped talking, developed weakness in left limbs, diplopia and disturbed swallowing. The anamnesis read a developed right-side hemiparesis, that passed off by itself within two weeks. The patient isin grave condition. Neurological status: conscious, understands when she hears people speaking to her, but doesn’t speak. Cranial nerves: equal palpebral fissures, nystagmus not present, the right nasolabial fold smoothed out. Slight deviation of the tongue to the right. High tendon and periosteal extremity reflexes, weakness in right limbs. Reduced pharyngeal reflex on both sides. The rigidity of occipital muscle is moderately frank. Kering’s symptom on both sides. Babinski’s reflex on the left.
The morphological diagnosis of thyroid gland pathology during surgery is rightfully
considered one of the most important and complicated tasks faced by anatomists and
surgeons. This research aimed to choose optimum surgical tactics with tumors and
tumor-like lesions of the thyroid gland, which is achieved by accurate verification of the
process as well as by determining its spread in the organ and/or beyond it. The
experience in the use of nonlinear computer diagnosis (NLS) in surgical clinics covers
quite a short period of time, during which quite conflicting opinions with respect to its
efficiency were formed. Among the prime considerations against extensive use of
NLS we should mention the possibility to preclude in some instances malignant pattern of
a new growth because of a morphological similarity of follicular tumors. Without downgrading this problem and based on our own experience in the use of NLS we have
attempted to access the importance of this method for choosing the optimum surgical
tactics and working out some methodical techniques enhancing efficiency and accuracy
of the NLS investigations.
Subject and investigation methods
We analyzed the results of 682 patho-histological investigations of the thyroid gland
carried out in 2000-2001 in patients operated on for solitary nodes, diffuse and
multinodal hyperplasia and autoimmune thyroid diseases. 326 of all surgeries were
accompanied by NLS. NLS data were compared with the final results of
The NLS-investigation of thyroid tumors is an efficient method for choosing
surgical approach in surgery for nodal and diffuse forms of goiter.
The NLS performed for the patientsfollowing FNAB, considerably enhancesthe
accuracy of morphological investigations at the preliminary phase, and optimizes
the surgical approach in surgery forthe thyroid gland.
This is a very important reason in favor of the appropriateness of using NLSinvestigation together with FNAB.
The problem of pathology in the hepato pancreato duodenal area still remains urgent and
explains why researchers are keen on the search for improved diagnosis methods, since
the diagnosis proper is the starting point for determining the approach to treatment.
Today the basic methods for diagnosing pathology in this region are traditionally
methods of direct artificial contrasting of the pancreaticobiliary system, such as
endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCPG) and percutaneous
transhepatic cholangiography (PTCG), well established in both diagnosis and treatment
of a number of diseases such as cholelithiasis, cysts and tumors in the head of the pancreas,
tumor and corrosive strictures of the biliary ducts, tumors of Vater’s papilla, etc.
At the same time, the padio endoscopic methods of investigation of the biliary ducts,
though characterized by a rich diagnostic informational content owing to their
invasiveness, still do not eliminate the danger of serious complications, such as acute
pancreatitis, hyperamylasemia, cholangitis, sepsis, and allergic reactions, biliary flux
into the abdominal cavity with developing biliary peritonitis, hemorrhages, etc.